Footsteps of The Glorious History of The Majapahit Kingdom on The Lombok Island

Lombok Island and its surroundings was once part of the power of the Majapahit Kingdom, which once recorded the existence of the Sasak Tribe in the State Book of Kertagama written by Mpu Nala or also known as Mpu Lembu Nala, a nobleman and writer from the Majapahit Kingdom. Mpu Nala is one of the beliefs of King Hayam Wuruk when the Majapahit era was at its peak of glory.

The beauty of Sembalun Village at the foot of Mount Rinjani
The beauty of Sembalun Village at the foot of Mount Rinjani

A book that connects the Majapahit Kingdom and the Lesser Sunda Islands which includes the island of Lombok and its surroundings, namely the Book of Old Manuscript Quotes and Aspects of Knowledge, the State Museum of West Nusa Tenggara.

The book mentions that in the XI and XVI centuries there were efforts to strengthen the influence of Majapahit to the Selaparang Kingdom and the Dompu Kingdom. At that time Patih Gaja Mada assigned Mpu Nala to conduct an expedition to the Majapahit Kingdom in 1357 AD.

After the expedition was successful, the Selaparang and Dompu kingdoms became part of Majapahit rule, so Patih Gajah Mada came to Lombok Island (Selapawis). The presence of Patih Gajah Mada is recorded in the Bencangah Punan and the Copper Inscription in Menggala Village, Tanjung District, North Lombok.

Gajah Mada's arrival was escorted by a skilled soldier called Satria Lumendung Sari who came from Waringin Breech Village in Majapahit. Their arrival came to Sembalun Lawang which is at the foot of Mount Rinjani which has an altitude of 3,726 MDPL in West Lombok. This location is the residence of the descendants of the Majapahit family, namely Raden Arya Pati and Raden Arya Mangunjaya who made the petilasan there. In Sembalun, there is also a river named the Majapahit River and there is also the Majapahit Hill which is said to have the soles of the feet of the Majapahit courtiers.

Besides Petilasan Sembalun Lawang, there are other traces of Majapahit's influence in Lombok, namely from the side of the Sasak language. There are several syllables originating from the Javanese language such as kelabi which means clothes, tetanduran or plants,

The culture of the Majapahit era in the form of food also exists in Lombok. Some snacks that the people of Sembalu have known for a long time, such as kue cucur, rengginang, gogos, gerupuk, pancakes, tackles, and diamonds.

Gradually the influence of the Majapahit Kingdom on the island of Lombok diminished along with the decline of the kingdom centered in Kotaraja Mojokerto. Moments of decline since the death of Gajah Mada in 1364 AD and after the death of King Hayam Wuruk or Sri Rajasanagara in 1389.

After that period the Majapahit Kingdom was full of internal conflicts over power and throne as well as civil wars. One of the biggest conflicts of Majapahit descendants was the Regreg War which occurred between 1404-1406 in the Majapahit Kingdom area in Java due to dualism of power. The conflict between the families of Majapahit descendants in the West Palace led by Wikramawardhana and the followers of Bhre Wirabhumi who separated by making the Majapahit palace in eastern Java.

During this period of conflict, various regions outside Java broke away from the influence of Majapahit, including the kingdoms in Lombok. Finally, the influence of the Majapahit kingdom ended after the collapse of the greatest legendary kingdom in the archipelago during the last reign of Majapahit by Patih Air in 1518 AD.

There is also a mention that the Majapahit Kingdom had ended in 1400 Saka or 1478 AD as in the book History of Indonesia during the Hindu-Buddhist period (2013) by Suwardono, stated that Majapahit had collapsed in 1400 Saka or 1478 AD as mentioned in Serat Kanda.

The Selaparang Kingdom in the Majapahit era was Hindu, then after Majapahit collapsed, the influence of the Demak Kingdom and traders from Java and Sulawesi began to enter and little by little Islam began to develop in Lombok.

From the Babad Lombok source, it is explained that after the influence of Majapahit disappeared, Sunan Giri's son, Sunan Prapen, was ordered to lead an expedition to Lombok in order to bring the teachings of Islam to be spread peacefully. The handwritten notes of the Lombok Chronicle are currently still kept by the Bayan Customary Stakeholder, Raden Singaderia. In addition there is also the Bayan Mosque which is more than 300 years old.

In the 16th century, the influence of Islam on the island of Lombok was getting stronger, which was widely embraced by the Sasak people. The increasingly strong influence made the Selaparang Kingdom an Islamic kingdom (Ide of Anak Agung Gde Agung, Bali in the XIX Century, 1989:103).

The Indonesia Adventure Team Writter


Reference:

1. Wahyudin, D. 2018. Identity of the Sasak People: An Epistemological Study of the Knowledge Production Mechanism of the Sasak Tribe.

2. www.republika.co.id/berita/pj59be320/warisan-majapahit-di-tanah-lombok-kosakata-to-keyakinan

3. The idea of Anak Agung Gde Agung, Bali in the XIX Century, 1989.

4. Amalia, A.R. 2017. The Marriage Tradition of Merariq Sasak Tribe in Lombok.

4. Husnan, L.E, 2012. Spelling of the Sasak Language. Mabasan Journal.

5. Wikipedia.


Tags. : the influence of majapahit, lombok island, majapahit in lombok, history of lombok island, traditions of the sasak tribe, sasak tribe, Majapahit in lombok, lombok culture, sembalun, sembalun tourism, sembalun village