Saturday, October 3, 2020

Layangan Kaghati Permainan Tradisional Nusantara Sejak Masa Mesolitikum

 

Layang-layang adalah permainan yang sudah sangat populer di seluruh dunia. Ada juga yang menyebutnya dengan layangan dan ada juga dengan sebutan wau (bahasa Melayu). Di Jawa Barat  orang Sunda menyebutnya dengan langlayangan, orang Betawi menyebutnya dengan kaong, dan banyak lagi istilah untuk layangan ini di Indonesia. Penyebutan ini berbeda sesuai dengan tempatnya.

Anak-anak sedang bermain layangan di atas loteng rumah
 

Pada dasarnya layang-layang adalah berupa bambu atau jenis kerangka yang kuat yang dilapisi kertas atau kain yang lebar dan dapat menampung hembusan angin sehingga dapat terbang dan naik keudara dengan kendali berupa benang. Bambu menjadi komponen penting sebagai kerangka untuk menahan bentuk struktur layangan yang berinteraksi oleh arus angin dan juga kendali pemain layangan.  

Liburan atau akhir pekan merupakan waktu yang paling menyenangkan bagi anak-anak bahkan juga orang dewasa untuk bermain layangan. Apalagi disaat musim kemarau dengan angin kencang adalah waktu yang tepat untuk bermain layang-layang.

Seorang anak bermain layangan yang menggunakan buntut sebagai stabilisator
 

Pengembangan layang-layang ini menampilkan struktur sayap yang tampak unik itu dipengaruhi oleh layar kapal  dari Nusantara yang terkenal sudah ada sebelum masa Masehi. Bangunan ini rupanya bermigrasi ke Malaysia dan menjadi dasar dari layang-layang wau mereka yang sangat indah, dimulai dengan wau merak dari provinsi Johor.

Tradisi tersebut berlanjut hingga hari ini karena kerajinan pembuatan layang-layang juga menjadi ajang seni dan kreatifitas yang mencerminkan kedalaman seni dan keahlian yang menjadi ciri artistik di negara yang unik ini.

Jika menggali sejarah tentang layang-layang di Nusantara yaitu dari lukisan di goa masa mesolitikum berupa gambar layang-layang kaghati. Umur lukisan di batu gua yang ada di Sulawesi Tenggara tersebut telah ada sejak 9500-9000 tahun SM.

Penemuan gambar di Goa Kobari itu terjadi pada tahun 1996, oleh seorang bernama La Hada yang saat  ini menjadi juru pelihara Kompleks Goa Kobori. Penemuan lukisan tersebut berjumlah 18 lukisan di dinding gua dari batu cadas. Posisi lukisan tersebut pada ceruk Sugi Patani yang berjarak 700 meter dari Kompleks Kobori dan 250 meter di atas permukaan laut. Secara administratif Goa Kobari berada di Desa Liangkobari, Kecamatan Lohia, Kabupaten Muna, Sulawesi Tenggara.

Lukisan pada dinding flapon ceruk goa tersebut berwarna coklat kemerahan dalam bentuk figur manusia yang sedang bermain layang-layang. Bentuk manusia dan layang-layang sangat jelas, tetapi gambar wajah dari pemain layang-layang tidak seberapa jelas dan misteri. Dari goresan lukisan tersebut diperkirakan hasil dari kuasan jari tangan.

Penemuan lukisan layang-layang di gua itu juga dipublis dalam penelitian dan analisis seorang Jerman bernama Wolfgong Bick. Ia adalah Consultant of Kite Aerial Photography Scientific Use of Kite Aerial Photography terkait jenis laying-layang tertua di dunia pada tahun 1997.  Dalam tulisannya Wolfgong menjelaskan bahwa masyarakat di Pulau Muna, Sulawesi Tenggara sudah memiliki budaya untuk menerbangkan layang-layang yang dinamakan Kaghati Kolope sudah sejak ribuan tahun lalu.

Hasil temuannya tersebut kemudian dipublikasikan pada sebuah artikel berjudul “The First Kiteman” yang dimuat dalam sebuah majalah di Jerman pada tahun 2003 silam.

Mungkin gambar-gambar kuno ini menggambarkan layang-layang yang digunakan dalam aktivitas-aktivitas awal mereka yang paling tua, seperti memancing dan spritual keagamaan. Masyarakat Muna juga menggunakan layang-layang kaghati pada saat menyambut panen raya untuk merayakan rasa syukur atas berkah yang diberikan oleh Sang Pencipta.

Selain di Muna di Sulawesi Selatan, permainan layang-layang juga sudah menjadi tradisi di Mandar, Sulawesi Barat. Nama layang-layang disini disebut dengan layang-layang lake yang juga biasa dimainkan setelah selesai panen raya.  Saat ini tradisi permainan ini telah menjadi agenda rutin berupa gelaran Festival Layang-layang Lake yang biasa di selenggarakan pada bulan Agustus.

Orang-orang Suku Mandar juga termasuk berjiwa maritim yang kuat dan terkenal di Nusantara karena kemampuan untuk membuat kapal dan berlayar ke banyak negeri.  Budaya bermain layang-layangnya tidak terlepas dari kemampuan maritim yang ada. Layangan jenis lake dari Mandar ini diterbangkan selagi ada angin musim timur yang berhembus dari Benua Australia yang sedang dingin ke Benua Asia yang sedang musim panas dan kemarau. Adanya angin ini juga digunakan untuk berlayar ke arah utara mengikuti arah angin menggunakan kapal layar.

Di Sumatra sejarah tentang layang-layang terkait erat dengan sejarah Melayu di Nusantara.Tulisan tetang permainan layang-layang dalam sebuah Festival Layang-Layang yang dicatat dalam Sejarah Melayu (Sulalatus Salatin) pada abad ke-17. Para peserta dalam acara tersebut adalah para pembesar kerajaan.

Di Sumatra permainan layang-layang juga berkembang pada budaya Melayu sejajar dengan budaya maritim yang ada pada masa banyak perdagangan  yang terjadi dikawasan Pasai Aceh, Selat Malaka, Kepulauan Riau, Jambi,  Sumatra Selatan dan  Lampung. Dari wilayah ini juga kemudian menyebar ke Semenanjung Melaya dan Tumasik (Singapura) dibawa oleh pedagang-pedagang dari Selat Malaka ke berbagai penjuru nusantara. Dari Selat Malaka ini juga para penjelajah Portugis dan Spanyol membawanya ke Benua Eropa dan Amerika.

Di Sumatra Barat permainan layang-layang di lakukan oleh pemuda yang ingin memikat hati seorang gadis, mereka membuat layang-layang yang paling indah dan juga bisa bersuara dengan menggunakan seutas tali rapia yang di bentangkan antara dua sisi bambu yang melengkung. Utasan tali akan bergetar saat berada diudara dan menghasilkan suara yang berdengung.

Di Bali permainan layang-layang tidak hanya sekedar permainan saja, tetapi juga sangat sarat dengan ritual dan kepercayaan, sebagai contoh sebuah layang-layang sebelum diterbangkan diberi sesaji dan layang-layang yang sudah diritualkan itu menjadi benda sakral. Tradisi menerbangkan layang-layang di Bali disebut dengan Rare Angon. Rare Angon adalah seorang dalam tokoh pewayangan dan merupakan wujud dari putra Dewa Siwa.

Ada banyak macam layang-layang di Bali yang dibuat dengan berbagai kreatifitas seni, hal ini dapat kita lihat pada Festival Layang-Layang di Bali. Ada yang berbentuk biasa, tetapi juga ada yang berbentuk binatang, binatang mitos, berbentuk tiga dimensi dan segainya dengan corak warna warni yang indah yang dibuat dengan cara gotong royong. Gairah kebersamaan ini menyebabkan acara Festival Layang-Layang di Bali adalah saat yang paling ditunggu-tunggu warga Bali dan para wisatawan.

Ada beberapa jenis layang-layang di Bali, seperti jenis layang bebean yang berbentuk seperti ikan, layangan jangan berbentuk seperti naga dengan ekor yang panjang, layangan jangan buntut yaitu layangan naga yang tidak berekor dan layangan pecukan berbentuk seperti bulan sabit yang ujung-ujungnya mengarah kebawah. Layangan pecukan biasanya menggunakan suara gaung karena ditambah dengan rentangan seutas tali atau bilah bambu tipis yang dapat bergetar dan bersuara saat terkena arus angin. 


Sumber Referensi:

- https://kebudayaan.kemdikbud.go.id/ditwdb/kaghati/
- https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Layang-layang
- http://en.gocelebes.com/kaghati-worlds-first-kite/
- http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~ET3M-TKKW/scrap-11.html




Tag : Layang-layang, layangan, bermain layangan, kaghati, Muna Sulawesi Selatan, layangan Muna, Sulsel, layangan Sulawesi Selatan

Tour to Pine Forest in Sumber Jaya, West Lampung

West Lampung is arguably a paradise for natural tourism, mountains, rivers, forests, beaches with high sea waves, hot springs, historical sites and so on. Physically, the regency with its capital in Liwa does have a very different land contour from other districts in Lampung. West Lampung is also the largest area included as part of the Bukit Barisan National Park which has a very large protected forest.

Hutan Pinus Lampung Barat
The umbrellas hanging between pine trees are very instagrammable

One of the locations for eco-tourism in West Lampung is Sumber Jaya Pine Forest in West Lampung. The trip to Sumber Jaya Pine Forest from Bukit Kemuning Subdistrict, North Lampung, takes about 40 minutes by winding uphill roads. The scenery during the trip is very exciting because along the way we will be presented with views of the mountains and hills from a height.

Arriving there, we will see a pine forest which to people in general will feel foreign because pine forests are rather rare on the island of Sumatra. This different view will make us even more curious after breathing the fresh air and green scenery.

The pine trees in the Sumber Jaya pine forest belong to the Pinaceae family and the Pinopsida class. Pine or also known as Sumatran tusam tree. Sumatran Tusam is a pine tree that lives and grows on the island of Sumatra. Pines that grow in needle-leaved Sumatra are conifers (Pinophyta).
Betuk tall pine tree towering by forming a cone up the cone.

Hutan Pinus Lampung Barat
Pine Forest a cool place to relax

 

The roots of this tree are very strong and can withstand wind or storms. Pine forests are included in tropical forests in the mountains and hills of Indonesia. Pine trees prefer to grow where the altitude is above 600m above sea level to about 1500m above sea level. Pines also have the characteristic of being a cylindrical main stem, straight and upright. The branches form a regular loop, the free height of the branches can reach 10-25 meters.

This pine tree sap can be tapped to produce turpentine and gondorukem raw materials. Perum Perhutani conducts nursery and cultivation in Java and Sumatra, in addition to planting industrial pine forests to meet the needs of turpentine and gondorukem.

It turns out that the pine forests that we often see in the forests of Europe or the Americas are also in West Lampung. If you like old Coboy films, we can see the existing forests in the form of pine and spruce forests.

a tree threaded like a snake

 

 


    

Entering this forest area has begun to feel cold and cool. There is a distinctive pine forest aroma, this could be an aromatherapy for stress relief or a result of being cut off by a boyfriend. The dense shade of pine trees makes us cool to sit around and chat about the future. The aroma of stress relieving pine forest therapy will be even more pronounced if there is a gentle breeze blowing the pine trees and leaves.

The Pine Forest Ecotourism in Sumber Jaya is cultivated in collaboration with KPHL II Liwa, KPA Green, HPPHL and the HKM Group which formed a consortium called West Land. This collaboration was formed for the management of this pine forest. Apart from the aim of preserving pine forests, it is also to increase tourism in West Lampung. 


Close to the Bukit Barisan National Park

In this pine forest area, various tree houses, huts, gardens and comfortable seats have been made for hanging out with family or friends. We can also rent a swing cloth that is stretched between two trees to lie down while swinging. Obviously if we swing over time on this swinging cloth we can fall asleep because of the cool air, the breeze and the smell of pine which makes our nerves loose and relax.

Hutan Pinus Lampung Barat
One of the tallest pine trees


For those of you who like to take photo actions in the Sumber Jaya pine forest, interesting photo spots and Instagram photos have also been made with natural and natural backgrounds.

For copyists, "copy pay". Drink coffee in a cold place with fresh air. There is also a place to order black coffee, brewed coffee, moca coffee or cappuccino. Just select. It's a shame if the atmosphere is very comfortable but not coffee. It feels incomplete.

The journey home while enjoying the sunset



#TheIndonesiaAdventure
The Indonesia Adventure Team Writter

Tag : West Lampung, Pinus Debt, West Lampung Tourism, Bukit Barisan National Park, Forest

Tari Sigeh Pengunten dari Salah Satu Kekayaan Seni Budaya Lampung

Lampung memiliki kekayaan budaya yang beragam, sebagai bagian dari rumpun Melayu yang ada di Selatan Sumatra. Suku Lampung sendiri terdiri dari banyak rumpun (marga) yang tersebar di wilayah  ujung paling selatan Pulau Sumatra itu. Secara garis besar suku Lampung terbagi dalam dua adat, yaitu Lampung Pepadun dan Lampung Saibatin.

Penari Sigeh Pengunten dalam salah satu pose penutupan.

Keberagaman adat Lampung ini juga terlihat dari kekayaan seni dan budayanya, seperti pada seni tari, pakaian, kuliner, bahasa dan juga tata adat perkawinan yang masing-masing marga Lampung memiliki ciri-ciri sendiri yang khas.

Seni tari di daerah ini termasuk juga beragam yang terus dilestarikan dan diajarkan secara turun-temurun dalam marganya dan kemudian juga banyak sentuhan kreasi dari seniman dari daerah yang terkenal dengan kuliner seruit ini.

Salah satu tarian dari budaya Lampung adalah Tarian Sigeh Pengunten yang sangat populer di Lampung, karena banyak digelar dalam berbagai even budaya dan juga di Provinsi Lampung. Even pariwisata dan budaya di provinsi ini yang paling terkenal adalah Festival Krakatau yang selalu menampilkan gelaran tari Siger Pengunten.

Belum lagi berbagai even yang dilakukan di pemda-pemda kabupaten, seperti  Festival Sekala Bekhak di Lampung Barat, Festival Teluk Semangka di Tenggamus, Festival Teluk Stabas di Pesisir Barat, Festival Radin Jambat di Way Kanan juga selalu menampilkan aksi tarian ini.

Berbagai acara budaya biasanya menjadi tempat untuk menampilkan tarian tersebut. Tarian Sigeh Pengunten merupakan salah satu tarian yang sangat populer di Lampung.

Tarian ini paling sering digelar pada saat menyambut tamu dan saat resepsi pernikahan. Gerakan dan keceriaan para penari memberikan nuansa keceriaan karena kedatangan tamu yang sangat dihormati. Selain biasanya digelar pada saat upacara penyambutan, tarian ini juga dibawakan sebagai bukti rasa syukur telah hadir dalam acara tersebut.

Salah satu keunikan dari penari Sigeh Pengunten adalah penari perempuan menggunakan penutup kepala berupa siger yang berwarna kuning emas. Warna kuning emas ini adalah warna dominan dari tutup kepala dan juga pakaian yang digunakan. Warna ini melambangkan kemakmuran, perdamaian, persaudaraan dan kejayaan, bahwa kejayaan tidak akan pernah ada tanpa adanya kemakmuran, perdamaian dan persaudaraan.

Tarian ini dibawakan oleh penari dalam jumlah ganjil, dengan satu orang di tengah membawakan tepak. Tepak adalah kotak kuning keemasan berisi daun sirih yang akan diberikan kepada tamu. Tarian ini diiringi dengan lantunan alat musik tradisional dari Lampung.

Nuansa keceriaan itu semakin nyata dengan iringan tabuhan Gamolan Lampung yang memiliki instrumen seperti gong, kolintang yaitu berupa barisan gong-gong kecil yang berbeda ukuran, derep (sejenis kendang) dan xilapon berupa deretan bambu dengan nada berbeda dalam satu oktaf.  

Suara gamolan sangat khas dalam alunan melodi yang mendayu-dayu dan terkadang semarak tabuhan derap/kendang tetapi sahdu. Ritme tabuhan gendang dengan iringan melodi dari kolintang dan juga xilapon ini menjadi acuan bagi para penari untuk melakukan gerakan tariannya.

Gerakan tarian-tarian Sigeh Pengunten sangat dinamis, karena banyak unsur dominan yang bergerak seperti berupa gerakan tangan dan jari, gerakan badan dan juga perubahan tempat dan komposisi dari penari.

Inilah yang menyebabkan suguhan penampilan penari Sigeh Pengunten selalu menjadi daya tarik tersendiri dari berbagai acara yang banyak digelar dan menjadi tarian paling populer di Provinsi Lampung.

The Indonesian Adventure Team Writter

Tag : Lampung, adat Lampung, tari Lampung, budaya Lampung, tari Sigeh Pengunten, tarian, budaya, pariwisata, wisata Lampung, wisata budaya, musik lampung, kulintang, gamolan, Tarian Lampung


Saturday, September 26, 2020

Watch Balinese Dance at the Garuda Wisnu Kencana Cultural Park

 

Bali is a destination that provides many choices for tourists to enjoy various cultural events, in addition to its very attractive natural beauty. Bali is one of the world's most popular destinations. This is what causes tourists to love to come to Bali.
 
Balinese dancers at the Garuda Wisnu Kencana Amphitheater Cultural Park, Kuta
 
One of the interesting cultural attractions in Bali is the Garuda Wisnu Kencana Cultural Park (GWK) located in Kuta. You could say Kuta is the center of cultural events in Bali, although in other places there are also many similar treats, but Kuta provides a treat with scheduled events and has various themes.
 
Another interesting thing in Kuta is the existence of a world-wide Balinese tourist icon, a 20-meter high statue of Lord Vishnu. This location attracts tourists and becomes an object for photographers to capture.

Garuda Wisnu Kencana
Balinese dancers at the Garuda Wisnu Kencana Amphitheater Cultural Park
 
This famous Cultural Park in Bali is located at Jalan Raya Uluwatu, Ungasan Village, South Kuta, Badung Regency. Not far from Ngurah Rai Airport because the distance to GWK is around 12.2 Km. If it is estimated that the travel time using taxi transportation to GWK will only take 20 - 28 minutes depending on the current being busy or smooth.

With a garden area of ​​240 hectares, many kinds of facilities are here. As; Amphitheater, Indraloka Garden, Street Theater art parade, Exhibition Hall, plazas and malls, restaurants, boutiques, and also Balinese souvenir shops.

Garuda Wisnu Kencana
Balinese dancers at the Garuda Wisnu Kencana Amphitheater Cultural Park

GWK organizes many arts and cultural performances. One of them is performing various Balinese dances. One of the cultural parks in GWK is the Amphitheater. Amphitheater is used as an arena for Balinese dance performances and also at other times the GWK Amphitheater performs dance performances from other regions in the archipelago.

Garuda Wisnu Kencana
Balinese dancers at the Garuda Wisnu Kencana Amphitheater Cultural Park

The GWK Amphitheater is open every day with scheduled shows. There are various kinds of dances that are often performed here such as Barong, Kera, and Rangda dance performances. Barong Dance depicts the battle between good and evil. Barong depicts good and evil by Rangda. The two characters are very contradictory in an art of acting and dance that is interesting to watch. This Barong and Rangda dance is one of the Balinese dance icons which is widely witnessed by tourists.

Another interesting dance, such as the Kecak dance, has interesting rhythms where most of the dancers are male, which is performed en masse using black and white plaid cloth like a chess board. This Kecak dance is actually a theatrical drama (acting) that describes a story. Generally the story described is about the Ramayana.

Garuda Wisnu Kencana
Barong Dance at the GWK Amphitheater, Kuta, Bali

Unlike other types of dance, Cek Dance does not use accompaniment music, but uses the voices of men who surround the dancers who are in the middle. The pounding of the man's voice formed strains that were similar to the sound of a musician. The rhythms chanted form a kind of spiritual rhythm. The Kecak dance becomes its own charm for tourists and at every Kecak dance performance it gets attention and has its own magnet for tourists, especially foreign tourists. So that the Kecak Dance has always been a successful icon of Balinese tourism.

Another performance that is often performed at the GWK Amphitheater Cultural Park is Rindik. Rindik is a traditional musical instrument that has become the hallmark of Balinese art. This musical instrument is made from bamboo with selendro tones when played by beating. The notes are produced from several people who play in one Rindik team, about 2 to 5 players. Rindik musical instruments combined with Balinese gongs and flutes.

Garuda Wisnu Kencana
Balinese Dancers, Amphitheater Cultural Park, Kuta
 
If you come in the afternoon between 18.30 and 19.30 WITA, don't waste it on being able to watch the Kecak dance or other dance creations that are offered free of charge. After finishing watching the show or before the show, you can take time to take pictures with the dancers.


Amphitheater GWK, Kuta
Balinese dancers at the Amphitheater, Kuta, Bali

Apart from the GWK Amphitheater, dance performances are also often performed in an outdoor area called the Street Theater at Plaza Wisnu, Lotus Pond. The performances that are carried out on this street are usually in the form of Balinese cultural parades featuring various kinds of dances, such as the Joged Bumbung Dance, the Kecak Dance Parade, the Barong dance and so on. At the Street Theater, various kinds of Balinese traditional clothing were also shown.

From our entry, usually what will be seen first is the Street Theater which is the opening menu of our tour here. From here we can also fill the stomach with a variety of culinary delights from the restaurant. If you want to continue by looking for souvenir knick-knacks, there are also many souvenir shops available here, such as Bali souvenirs and GWK merchandise and also the Bali Art Market.

TheIndonesiaAdventure.com Team Writter

Tag. :  Garuda Wisnu Kencana, GWK, Bali, Balinese Dance, Barong, Kecak, Amphitheater GWK, Kuta, Bali Tourism, Bali Island

Thursday, September 17, 2020

Yogyakarta Batik Cloth, Art and Cultural Heritage in Javanese Philosopy

Batik is one of the fabrics that has a long history and is an important part of the culture of Indonesian society. One of the famous types of batik is batik which comes from the city of Yogyakarta which is a city of culture and arts.

Yogyakarta batik is one of the icons of the city of Yogyakarta. It's a shame if you go to Yogya but don't buy batik. Moreover, family and friends at home want souvenirs. Yogya batik souvenirs taste just right. In addition to souvenirs, batik is also for personal needs, because now batik is widely used for work clothes, not just for parties. Batik cloth has become one of the characteristics of an important community and region. This traditional identity has been around for a long time.

Batik, Batik Yogya
A Batik Craftsman who is writing traditional batik

In Javanese culture, the term batik comes from the tik syllable. The word tik refers to the points during the process of making traditional batik with delicate, soft, and detailed hands. The word drip is certainly a work that must use a tool that can drip. The tool is called a "canting" which contains dye ink on the inside. After the ingredients run out, the canting is dipped again in a kind of bowl containing batik dye which is continuously heated on a small stove.

Batik, Batik Yogya
Yogyakarta Batik Monument on Malioboro Street

Making batik requires perseverance and patience to give a pattern to the entire surface of the fabric. Making batik is not only an art but also an expression of the feelings of the batik artists. All scratches and dots or coloring are very affected by a "taste" from the Batik maker.

Batik, Batik Yogya
The Yogya Batik Monument is in the middle of the Malioboro street square

Batik makers usually sit on a short stool or what is called “dingklik” and sit for a very long time to complete a complete batik art production. The specialty of making batik is that many mothers are old enough but very productive to produce batik art.

Yogyakarta City is one of the centers of Javanese batik culture. Actually, there are many cities in Java that have their own hues and colors of their batik, but it can be said that Yogyakarta is the center of Yogyakarta's batik trade. The main factor that makes it easier for the people of Yogya to sell their batik is because Yogyakarta is a very attractive tourist destination.

Batik, Batik Yogya
Tempat penjualan batik Yogya di Malioboro

 

 

   

Although Yogyakarta batik has its own uniqueness, it also has quite a wide variety of variations. If we come to various batik sales centers, we will feel the many variations. This shows the dynamics that exist in the city of Gudeg, but the dynamics still have quite prominent characteristics and peculiarities, namely: the dominant use of black, white and brown residents, but sometimes there is also a mixture of a little dark blue. Another prominent feature is the use of reliefs from plant forms.

Yogyakarta batik is also a type of batik whose work is still traditionally handwritten with a canting tool. Batik hunters are still looking for batik that is done in a traditional way. Besides looking more original as an art of batik, handwritten original batik also looks authentic and classy.

Batik, Batik Yogya
Pasar Bringharjo yang menjadi pusat penjualan batik Yogya


What batik seekers are looking for from Yogya batik is also that the price is relatively cheaper than batik from other cities in Java. The markets in Yogya City, both traditional and modern markets, in the form of malls, are not devoid of the batik trade. Batik for the people of Yogyakarta is not just an icon but a spirit to improve the economy and standard of living.

In general, the motifs and styles of Yogya batik are divided into several groups, namely:

Kawung Motif

The kawung motif includes the motifs common to Yogya batik. Mitif takes the form of consistent spheres like Kawung fruits. Kawung fruit is a type of coconut fruit which is usually used to make kolang kaling material. Kawung motif is usually a long cloth that is widely used for scarves or headscarves.

Parang Motif

There are two kinds of parang motifs, namely the damaged parang and the barong machete. Broken machetes means human resistance by controlling evil, so that evil can turn into a form of glory and wisdom.

For the barong machete motif which means that a leader will guard his heart and become an honest, fair and wise ruler. A leader must be compassionate and full of responsibility towards his people.

Batik Tambal Motif

The patched batik motif is related to the belief in the magical power of batik. The word patch means to heal and or repair (recovery). In Javanese culture there is a belief and hope that people who use patched batik will recover their illness. Of course this has to do with philosophy to maintain enthusiasm and hope to recover and live optimistically.

Truntum Motif

Truntum batik motif means a type of kasik batik which is classified as rare which is still preserved until now. Truntum batik motif is commonly used in weddings. Truntum motif batik symbolizes the hope that the love and affection of the two married brides can be maintained and continue to be happy together.

In fact, there are many other types of motifs such as the motif of the parang damaged gendreh, the parang damaged klitik, the big cement swat gurda, the big cement swat lar, the udan liris, the rujak sente, and the parang-parangan. There are several motifs that are not allowed to be used by the public but are special and special for the Sultan and the Yogyakarta palace family. But for now, this regulation has become more flexible and only applies to the Yogyakarta Palace and does not apply to the general public.

TheIndonesiaAdvanture.com Team Writter
#TheIndonesiaAdventure

Key. : Yogyakarta, culture, batik art, batik clothes, cloth, batik, Yogyakarta batik

Wednesday, September 16, 2020

Catatan Sejarah Penjelajah Eropa dan Tiongkok Tentang Kapal Jung Jawa

Pada masa lalu Kerajaan Sriwijaya yang berpusat di Sumatra dengan kekuasaan meluas melampaui wilayah kepulauan dan juga Kerajaan Majapahit yang berpusat di Jawa dengan kekuasaannya hampir menguasai Asia Tenggara telah menjadi bukti yang cukup bahwa kemampuan bahari adalah kunci untuk mencapai wilayah luas lautan dan kepulauan di Asia Tenggara.

Replika Kapal Dinasti Sailendra di Komplek Candi Borobudur.


Dalam tulisan Francois Rabelais yang berasal Prancis dan hidup pada abad 16, mendiskripsikan kemampuan masyarakat di Nusantara pada masa lalu dalam membuat kapal-kapal besar yang dia sebut sebagai "gargantua."  

Istilah gargantua merujuk pada makna atau ilustrasi sebagai raksasa yang sangat besar dan rakus. Istilah gargantua dapat dilihat pada kamus Merriam-Webster yang menyebutkan bahwa gargantua ada dalam istilah di bahasa Portugis, tetapi istilah itu bukan orisinil dari Portugis karena merupakan kata serapan dari bahasa Berber di Afrika Utara.
 
Bahasa Melayu dari sejak Pra Indonesia  juga sudah menyerap istilah gargantua tetapi agak berbeda, yaitu  "gergasi" dengan arti yang sama dengan gargantuan dalam bahasa Barber, Afrika Utara. 

Budaya semangat maritime yang ada pada Pra Hindia Belanda di wilayah laut dan  kepulauan Indonesia saat ini itu sudah ada sejak sebelum dan awal penanggalan masehi. Salah satu bukti bahwa semangat maritime itu sudah ada adalah adanya relief kapal besar pada batu candi Borobudur yang dapat dilihat sampai saat ini.

Kapal Majapahit dalam relief Candi Borobudur.
Kapal Majapahit dalam relief Candi Borobudur.



Francois Rabelais menggambarkan kapal yang digunakan pada masa lalu di Nusantara itu sebagai gargantuan tidak lain adalah kapal “Jung” yang biasa dibuat oleh orang Jawa pada masa lalu. Dalam bahasa Melayu yang penggunanya banyak di Pulau Sumatra pada masa lalu dan sampai sekarang ini menyebutnya dengan istilah “Jong”, sedangkan orang Portugis yang sudah ada di Nusantara pada masa lalu menyebutnya dengan sebutan “Junco”. Orang Arab yang juga sudah datang ke Nusantara menyebutnya dengan “j-n-k”, pengucapannya mirip dengan orang Iberia.

Dalam bukunya Denys Lombard,  Nusajawa: Jaringan Asia yang diterbitkan tahun 2004 menyebut istilah "jung" berasal dari Asia Tenggara. Lombard juga menyebut “jung” sebagai kapal raksasa. Para Penjelajah Eropa menyebut wilayah perairan yang digunakan kapal Jung/Jong sebagai perairan “kun-kun” atau disebut sebagai Laut Selatan. Penyebutan Laut Selatan juga digunakan oleh para penulis dari Tiongkok.

Dalam catatan Tome Pires seorang penjelajah Portugis lainnya penggunaan kapal jung sebagai kapal armada pasukan laut Pati Unus yang tidak lain adalah seorang raja kerajaan Demak yang kedua. Tome Pires mencatat kapal Pati Unus memiliki kemampuan untuk menampung sekitar seribu penumpang.

Penulis lain yang masih semasa dengan Denys Lombard , yaitu Pierre-Yves Manguin juga pernah menulis khusus tentang "jung".  Menurut Manguin, kapal-kapa raksasa dari Jawa itu diproduksi dari galangan-galangan kapal yang dekat dengan kawasan hutan jati di Cirebon, Jepara, dan Tuban. 

Catatan lainnya mengenai kapal jung juga ada dari catatan Ptolemy yang jauh lebih tua. Dalam tulisan yang diperkirakan pada tahun 100 Masehi. Catatan itu berjudul:  “Periplus Marae Erythraensis (catatan laut bagian terluar)”.  Catatan dari Tiongkok berasal dari Wan Chen yang member judul tulisannya itu “Hal-Hal Aneh dari Selatan”.  Wan Chen mendiskripsikan kapal jung mampu membawa 700 orang penumpang, berikut dengan muatan kargo sampai dengan 10.000 kargo (250-1000 ton), panjangnya sampai 50 meter dan tingginya 4 hingga 7 meter. Wan Chen dalam tulisannya memastikan bahwa kapal itu bukan dari Tiongkok tetapi berasal dari “Kun-lun” (selatan).  

Dalam catatan hikayat dari Raja-raja Pasai menyebutkan, Kerajaan Majapahit menggunakan "jung" secara masif untuk kekuatan armada maritime. Mereka dikelompokkan menjadi 5 armada. Jumlah terbesar "jung" Majapahit mencapai 400 kapal, disertai jenis Malangbang dan Kelulus yang tak terhitung banyaknya.

Gaspar Correia, penulis sejarah abad 16 dari Portugis mencatat tentang pertemuan Alfonso Albuquerque dengan kapal raksasa Majapahit yang terjadi di Selat Malaka. Pramoedya menyebut, nama kapten terkenal Portugis itu berdasarkan penamaan orang Jawa pesisir yakni "Kongso Dalbi". Catatan Gaspar itu menyebutkan bahwa kapal raksasa itu tidak mempan ditembak meriam yang terbesar. Hanya dua lapis papan yang bisa ditembus dari empat lapis papan kapal itu. Saat kapten mencoba untuk menaikinya bagian belakang kapal Flor de la Mar tidak bisa mencapai jembatannya.

Pelaut dari Portugis Alfonso Albuquerque sendiri juga memiliki catatan terkait kapal jung dari Jawa ini. Alfonso Albuquerque menggambarkan kapal jung memiliki empat tiang layar dan memilikii bobot sampai dengan 600 ton.  Kapal terbesar dalam catatannya dimiliki oleh Kerajaan Demak yang bobotnya mencapai 1.000 ton.

Penulis Portugis lain Fernao Pires de Andrade merangkum catatan dari Tome Pires, menjelaskan pembuatan kapal jung itu membutuhkan waktu sampai tiga tahun. Bahkan penjelajah Albuquerque juga ikut mempekerjakan 60 tukang kayu dari Jawa untuk merancang kapal. Para ahli kapal dari Jawa itu sebelumnya adalah bekerja di Malaka.

Penulis dan juga seorang pedagang Italia, Giovanni da Empoli, mendiskripsikan kapal jung dalam surat-suratnya bahwa kapal jung tidak berbeda dengan sebuah  benteng, karena memiliki tiga dan empat lapis papan, satu di atas yang lain, yang tidak dapat dirusak dengan artileri. 

Kapal Terbesar Jung Jawa Pernah Dibuat Kerajaan Demak

Setelah kekuatan Majapahit mampu diruntuhkan Kesultanan Demak. Raden Fatah segera melakukan penataan pemerintahan yang lebih baik dan membangun kekuatan militer yang berbasis maritim yang kuat dan disegani. Upaya itu diteruskan oleh Pati Unus. Praktis kekuatan Demak menjadi kekuatan militer dengan kekuatan maritim yang terkenal. 
 
Kekuatan armada maritim Demak ini menjadi dayatarik bagi tempat lain untuk menjalin kerjasama. Salah satunya adalah kerjasama dengan Kerajaan Malaka di utara barat Sumatra. Kerjasama ini terbukti bermanfaat saat terjadi serangan armada Portugis ke Malaka.
 
Kesultanan Demak telah mempersiapkan kapal canggih dan besar seperti kapal induk saat ini, yaitu kapal super besar Jung Jawa untuk mengangkut pasukan yang besar pada tahun 1513.  Kekuatan armada ini sebanyak 35 kapal jung besar yang masing-masing  mampu menampung beban 500 ton.
 
Penggambaran kapal Jung Jawa dapat dibaca dari surat Fernao Peres de Andrade yang menjadi Komandan Armada Portugis di Malaka. Surat tersebut ditulis ditahun 1513 kepada Afonso de Albuquerque.
 
Isi surat  Fernao Peres de Andrade sebagai berikut ini:
“Kapal Jung adalah suatu yang menakjubkan. Kapal Anunciada yang dekat dengannya sama sekali tak terlihat sebagai kapal karena ukurannya amat kecil jika dibandingkan dengan Jung itu. Kami menyerangnya dengan meriam besar, tetapi tembakan tersebut tak dapat melubanginya di bawah garis air, dan tembakan espera juga tidak dapat tembus; pada jung itu terdapat tiga susunan, semuanya lebih tebal daripada satu cruzado. Kapal Jung itu pasti begitu besar dan dahsyat, dan untuk membangun kapal itu perlu tiga tahun.”

Kapal Anunciada seperti dalam penjelasan dalam surat Fernao Peres de Andrade adalah kapal terbesar yang dimiliki oleh Portugis.  Kemudian ada istilah espera yang maksudnya berupa meriam yang paling canggih yang dimiliki oleh Armada Portugis di Malaka. Ukuran satu cruzado maksudnya adalah ukuran dari uang koin Portugis yang berdiameter 3,8 cm.

Kapal Jung Jawa Pada Masa Lalu Sering Menjelajah Tanjung Harapan Afrika
 
Bukan sekedar ukurannya yang besar kapal Jung Jawa juga memiliki kemampuan jelajah yang sangat jauh. Bobot yang besar mampu menampung logistik yang juga besar, sehingga dapat digunakan untuk berlayar dalam waktu yang cukup lama di lautan. 
 
Penjelajahan itu bahkan sampai ke Afrika, tepatnya ke Tanjung Harapan. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan banyak orang Jawa yang memilih tinggal dan menetap di Madagaskar. Hal ini diperkuat oleh tulisan Diego de Couto dalam buku Da Asia, terbit di tahun 1645. Ia menjelaskan dalam bukunya; “Penduduk asli Madagaskar awal abad ke-16 berkulit cokelat seperti orang Jawa. Mereka mengaku keturunan Jawa."
 
Ahli Maritim Jawa Masa Lalu Memiliki Kemampuan Navigasi dan Pembuatan Peta
 
Selain kemampuan membuat kapal kekuatan armada Demak dan juga kerajaan pendahulunya yaitu Kerajaan Majapahit yang kekuasaanya sangat luas melampaui kepulauan yang banyak, tentu juga dibekali oleh keahlian  ilmu navigasi dan kemampuan untuk membuat peta. Bukti ini dapat dilihat dalam surat yang ditulis oleh Afonso de Albuquerque untuk Raja Portugal yaitu Manuel I pada bulan April tahun1512.

Afonso de Albuquerque menuliskan sebagai berikut:
 "... peta besar seorang mualim Jawa, yang berisi Tanjung Harapan, Portugal dan tanah Brazil, Laut Merah dan Laut Persia, Kepulauan Cengkih, navigasi orang Cina dan Gom, dengan garis rhumb dan rute langsung yang bisa ditempuh oleh kapal, dan dataran gigir (hinterland), dan bagaimana kerajaan berbatasan satu sama lain. Bagiku, Tuan, ini adalah hal terbaik yang pernah saya lihat, dan Yang Mulia akan sangat senang melihatnya memiliki nama-nama dalam tulisan Jawa, tetapi saya punya saya orang Jawa yang bisa membaca dan menulis, saya mengirimkan karya ini kepada Yang Mulia, yang ditelusuri Francisco Rodrigues dari yang lain, di mana Yang Mulia dapat benar-benar melihat di mana orang Cina dan Gore (Jepang) datang, dan tentu saja kapal Anda harus pergi ke Kepulauan Cengkih, dan di mana tambang emas ada, pulau Jawa dan Banda, tindakan seperiodenya, dari siapa pun sezamannya, dan tampaknya sangat mungkin bahwa apa yang dia katakan adalah benar..."

Informasinya didapat dari buku Diogo de Couto yang berjudul: "Da Asia".  Buku tersebut diterbitkan tahun 1645. Dalam buku tersebut menjelaskan tetang kemampuan dan keahlian navigasi orang Jawa sebagai berikut ini:
"Orang Jawa adalah orang-orang yang sangat berpengalaman dalam seni navigasi, sampai mereka dianggap sebagai perintis seni paling kuno ini, walaupun banyak yang menunjukkan bahwa orang Cina lebih berhak atas penghargaan ini, dan menegaskan bahwa seni ini diteruskan dari mereka kepada orang Jawa. Tetapi yang pasti adalah orang Jawa yang dahulu berlayar ke Tanjung Harapan dan mengadakan hubungan dengan Madagaskar, dimana sekarang banyak dijumpai penduduk asli Madagaskar yang mengatakan bahwa mereka adalah keturunan orang Jawa."
 
Itulah kehebatan dari bangsa kita di Nusantara ini, sehingga wajar kalau ada lagu: "Nenek moyangku orang pelaut...".  Semoga budaya maritim tersebut dapat muncul lagi di masa kini. 
 
 Sumber Referensi :
- indonesia.go.id/ragam/budaya/kebudayaan/jong-sang-gargantua-dari-laut-jawa
- id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pati_Unus
- Pires, Tome. Suma Oriental. London: The Hakluyt Society.
- Manguin, Pierre-Yves (September 1980). "The Southeast Asian Ship: An Historical Approach". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 11: 266–276 – via JSTOR. 
- www.bi.go.id/id/tentang-bi/museum/info/berita-khusus/Pages/Jung-Jawa-yang-Terlupakan.aspx.

#TheIndonesiaAdventure
The Indonesia Adventure Team Writter

Tag. :  Kapal Jung, Jawa, Malaka, Orang Jawa, Demak, Kesultanan Demak, Majapahit, Jong Ship, Gargantua, Maritim, Majapahit Ship, Sriwijaya Ship, Demak Ship, Jung Ship History, kapal, maritim, sejarah maritim, Relief Kapal pada Candi Borobudur, Kapal Jung Jawa

Tuesday, September 15, 2020

Relief of a Large Ship Sailing at Borobudur Temple

 
Sriwijaya Kingdom was one of the great kingdoms on the island of Sumatra in the past. The origin of this kingdom from the Sailendra Dynasty spread in Sumatra and Java gave birth to two great kingdoms, namely in Sumatra based in Palembang built the Kingdom of Sriwijaya through one of the dynasties namely Balaputradewa. In Central Java based in Magelang built the Kingdom of Ancient Mataram and East Java built the Kingdom of Medang.

reliefs of large ships at Borobudur
Reliefs of large ships at Borobudur


At a later stage, from the descendants of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom and the Medang Kingdom, this became the forerunner of other kingdoms that emerged later in the archipelago and in Southeast Asia in later times.

Why did the Sailendra dynasty really spread and its descendants became figures in other kingdoms that emerged later? Including spread to royal dynasties in Malaya, Indo China, Champa. Also spread to the Kingdom in Cambodia and India.

Another important symbol of the Sailendra dynasty is also in Nalada, India. The Sailendra family built an inscription which is an important clue today, the Nalada inscription.

To answer that question, let's look at the symbols in the reliefs of an important icon from the Sailendra dynasty whose descendants were built, namely Samaratungga, who was the wife of Dewi Tara who came from Sumatra.

The icon is still there and is one of the wonders of the world, Borobudur. Is there any meaning and meaning in the reliefs carved on the stones of Borobudur Temple, which amount to millions of pieces of stone?

The Sailendra dynasty, whose territory was truly vast, stretched across parts of the archipelago, to the territory of Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and India. You can imagine the extent of the power of the Sailendra Wangsa that gave birth to the Sriwijaya Kingdom in Swarnadwipa (Sumatra) and the Ancient Mataram and Medang Kingdoms in Java.

The extent of the influence and power of the Sailendra dynasty illustrates the greatness of the kingdom at its time. Described the strength of the fleet of ships whose voyages are commonplace to China, Africa, Russia and the Americas. If we look at the magnitude of power, it is not surprising that the Borobudur temple with a complex architecture was built and we can see it until now. 


Borobudur Temple
Top of Borobudur Temple

There are 10 reliefs of younger ships on the north side of Borobudur Temple whose real name is Kamulan Bhumisambhara according to the Kahulunan inscription which is 842 years old.From the reliefs there are 6 ships seen as large ships, while the other 4 reliefs are seen as small and medium ships. This is a nautical signal from the nation that made this Borobudur Temple.

Small ships and large sailing are clearly depicted in reliefs. There are reliefs depicting two sailing ships and a smaller ship with one sail. A sister ship is a ship with the characteristics of the Austronesian people in Southeast Asia.


Borobudur Temple
Photo action of tourists in Borobudur


In one of the reliefs there is a ship in the foreground of the ship, the keel sharpens forward and goes up. The front is pointed with added metal or iron that is hard and strong. This is a characteristic of a Sriwijaya ship. The sharpness of the front was used to gore enemy ships.

A British navy, Philip Beale conducted research on marine life in Borobudur. He was amazed by the details of the andesite stone reliefs of Borobudur Temple depicting the ship's intricate architecture. He believes that the sculpture was based on the architecture of the ship that actually existed at that time.

Beale was very inspired and wanted to make what is in the reliefs come true again. In September 2002 he met Nick Burningham, a shipbuilding engineer from Italy. Beale also appointed Nick Burningham to be a consultant to build the ship that is listed on the Borobudur relief.

Before building the big one, Burningham tried to apply the ship architecture in the Borobudur reliefs to the small replica he made with balsa wood. The replica was made as detailed as possible according to the description on the reliefs of Borobudur.

Nick Burningham and Philip Beale met Asad Abdullah who was in the Kangean Islands east of Madura. Asad Abdullah is known as a very experienced traditional ship craftsman.

Burningham's replica of the Borobudur ship was shown to Asad Abdullah. From that replica example Asad got to work and demonstrated his skills. From Asad's hands, in more than 4 months, the construction of the Samudraraksa ship was finally completed.

All processes of building and assembling ship components are carried out with pegs and tie plant fibers as the original. The ship was built with versis details like the one in the Borobudur reliefs.

With a length of 18.29 meters and a width of 4.25 meters, while the height of the ship is 2.25 meters. This dimension is not based on the wishes of Asad Abdullah, Nick Burningham and Philip Beale but on the basis of the details in the Borobudur reliefs. Philip Beale wanted a ship that would be exactly the same as the one at Borobudur. The ship weighs about 30 gross tonnage and is sufficient to accommodate 30 crew members.

Before being entered into the Samudra Raksa Ship museum as it is today, in 2003 the ship was used for an expedition plan from Jakarta to the Malacca Strait then through the Indian Ocean and arrived at the island of Madagascar in the South of the African continent. Then from here the journey continues to reach Accra (Cape Town) in South Africa.

The expedition began on 23 August 2003 from Tanjung Periuk Jakarta with a crew of 15 people including Philip Beale. The captain of the ship was appointed I Gusti Putu Ngurah Sadana, a marine from the Indonesian Navy.

On 23 February 2004 the Samudra Raksa ship arrived in Accra, Ghana. From here, they are sent back by means of a large ship back to Indonesia and placed in the Samudra Raksa Museum. This museum is in the same complex as the Borobudur Temple.

The success of this expedition illustrates that maritime trips in the past can reach other parts of the world which are very far away. The Kingdom of Sailendra dynasty through Balaputradewa who founded Sriwijaya was able to effectively control its power even though it was in a large area and separated from the islands from the archipelago to Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and south east India in Nalada. The extent of the power reaches nearly 90% of the archipelago of Southeast Asia today.

The Sailendra dynasty also through Ratu Pramodhawardhani who continued the rule of Ancient Mataram eventually became the forerunner of the emergence of the Medang Kingdom in East Java, the Singosari Kingdom and also the Majapahit Kingdom which was even more massive in expanding the archipelago.

Indonesia, which is the successor and heir of the archipelagic kingdoms in the past, has a large area from Sabang to Moreke which is a gift from the maritime spirit of the past of the Syailendra Dynasty. The relief of the existing ship, Borobudur, which was built by Samaratungga who was the King of Ancient Mataram, is a clear message that Indonesia must become a maritime country.

#TheIndonesiaAdventure
The Indonesia Adventure Team Writter.

Reference source:
- www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-buddhist-temple/
- en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borobudur
- www.indonesia.travel/en/destination/233
- "Borobudur Temple Compounds", whc.unesco.org/en/list/592 
- W. J. van der Meulen (1979), ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/52499

Tag. : Borobudur, Temple, Borobudur Temple, Relief of Borobudur, History of Borobudur, Sailendra, Sailendra Dynasty, Sumatra Kingdom, Borobudur Temple

Antique Ships at Sunda Kelapa Harbor, North Jakarta

Doing the cititour needs to be somewhat different. This time we want to see a very old and unique port. What is the port? Sunda Kelapa Harbor is located in North Jakarta, precisely in a historic area in the Old City area of ​​Jakarta.
Antique ships at Sunda Kelapa Harbor
Antique ships at Sunda Kelapa Harbor
In the past, we know, Jakarta was called Batavia, so the name of this port was Batavia Sunda Kelapa Marina or also known as Batavia Marina, which is the first and newest international standard integrated marina facility in Jakarta. The word marina means port in the Dutch colonial period.

The location of this old city has buildings with colonial-style architecture that blend with the surrounding area of ​​the Kota Tua (Old City), combined with a vast expanse of sea views just off Jakarta Bay.

Sunda Kelapa is the name of a port and its surroundings in Jakarta, Indonesia. This port is located in Penjaringan sub-district, Penjaringan sub-district, North Jakarta. The history of this port is very close to the history of Jakarta. The center of Batavia's first peace still exists today.

Even though now Sunda Kelapa is only the name of one of the ports in Jakarta, this area is very important because the villages around the port of Sunda Kelapa are the forerunners of the city of Jakarta whose anniversary is set on June 22, 1527.

Sunda Kelapa, the name Kalapa was originally called in the past, because it was part of the port area of the Pajajaran kingdom which had its capital in Pakuan (now the city of Bogor) which was captured by Demak and Cirebon troops. Although the anniversary of the city of Jakarta was only established in the 16th century.

Ships at Sunda Kelapa Harbor Sunda Kelapa Harbor, Jakarta The history of Sunda Kelapa has started much earlier, namely in the days of Pajajaran's predecessor, namely the Tarumanagara kingdom. The Tarumanagara kingdom was once attacked and conquered by the Srivijaya kingdom from Sumatra.

Kalapa Port has been known since the 12th century and at that time was the most important port of Pajajaran. Then at the time of the entry of Islam and the European colonizers, Kalapa was fought over between the kingdoms of the Archipelago and Europe.

After the Pajajaran Kingdom era, control of the port was replaced by the Dutch company VOC (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie). From the hands of the VOC then control was controlled by the Dutch East Indies Government. The Dutch East Indies changed the name of the port of Kalapa and the surrounding area. However, in the early 1970s, the ancient name Kalapa was again used as the official name for this old port in the form of "Sunda Kelapa".

Inside Sunda Kelapa Harbor you can see Phinisi ships in a row, which have unique shapes and are painted in several different colors. Ship engineers came from various regions in Indonesia, bringing wood, rattan, copra and other agricultural products to Jakarta. When Phinisi returned from Jakarta, he brought building materials such as steel and cement. You can see the loading and unloading activities that are still carried out traditionally in Sunda Kelapa.

At this time, Sunda Kelapa Harbor is planned to be a tourist area because of its high historical value. Currently Sunda Kelapa Port is one of the ports managed by PT Pelindo II which is not certified as International Ship and Port Security because the nature of its services is only for inter-island ships.

Currently the port of Sunda Kelapa has a land area of ​​760 hectares and an area of ​​16,470 hectares of pond waters, consisting of two main ports and the port of Kalibaru. The main port has an area of ​​3,250 meters and a pond area of ​​approximately 1,200 meters. Like most ports, Sunda Kelapa Harbor has many specially designed tools for loading and unloading ships that are anchored.
Photografer : Yoga Yerriandha

Tag. : Sunda Kelapa Harbor, Sunda Kelapa, Jakarta Harbor, Jakarta, Historical Harbor, Old Harbor, Old Town, North Jakarta, Tanjung Periok, Kota Tua Tourism

Monday, September 14, 2020

Balinese Traditional Dance Attractions in Ubud, Bali

 
Bali is an area of ​​art and culture. It's a loss if we don't take the time to see the attractions that are often held there. One of the places that often hold art events is Ubud. Ubud is the center of arts and culture in Bali. This conversion between society and culture has become one and has become their daily habit.

Balinese dance action in Ubud
Balinese dance action in Ubud
Dance has become the root of Balinese culture. This is not just entertainment. For Balinese people, art is entertainment for themselves and also for others. Usually, after gardening or from the rice fields, Balinese people usually gather at the Banjar Hall to just chat, learn to dance and play traditional music.

For them, this art is not only a hobby and a habit but also a necessity that must be enjoyed and performed in order for others to be entertained.

Long before Bali became the most favorite tourist destination in the world, actually various dance and art performances in Ubud already existed. Nowadays, after Bali has become a tourist center for both nature and culture, arts in Ubud are increasingly finding regular customers.
Balinese dance action in Ubud
Balinese dance action in Ubud
Balinese dance performances are no longer only during religious ceremonies or traditional activities, but Balinese dance is now performed every day in several places, even in one day there can be various kinds of dances.

It is not difficult to find Balinese dance performances or other Balinese art performances in Ubud. There are many dance sendra and performance venues that every day perform various art offerings. Such as Batu Bulan, Kasiman, Ulu Watu, Tanah Lot, Puri Saren, Wantilan, Pura Desa Kutuh, Puri Agung Peliatan, Puri Dalem Ubud, Ubud Water Palace and so on. In fact, there are many other places that have not been mentioned.
Balinese dance action in Ubud
Balinese dance action in Ubud
There are various dance offerings that are free and some are required to buy tickets. Not expensive, just to help, or also professionally selling tickets at a certain price, of which only Rp. 50 thousand, even the special and classic ones can cost Rp. 80 thousand, even hundreds of thousands there.

The tourists are very diverse, they can get the various performances they want. The dances that are presented in Ubud Bali are indeed very unique, it is very rare that we find this type of dance in Bali in other places.

Besides being unique, sometimes there are magical elements in these dances. But don't be afraid all of these dishes are really just entertainment, so there's no need to worry. There are many types of dances in Ubud, there are even hundreds of dances. But the very famous dances such as the Barong dance, the Kecak dance, the pendat dance, the Jegog dance, the Jimad mask dance, the Ramayana Kecak dance and so on.

Foreign tourists make this opportunity a unique photo object. They will capture various performance moments to get interesting photo art from this Ubud artist.

Tag, : Bali, ubud, bali dance, ubud dance, traditional dance,  ubud culture, traditional dance, pendat dance, jegog dance, bali beach, barong dance

Wednesday, September 9, 2020

The Pasupati Flyover, The Landmarks of Bandung City

 
Bandung is one of the tourist cities in Indonesia. This city has many nicknames, some say "Paris van Java" because the city of Bandung is cool, comfortable and beautiful and its European-style art deco architectural buildings. There is also the term "the City of Flowers", perhaps this meaning refers to the city of Bandung which has many gardens with green gardens and flowers. It can also be called "Artist City" because many Indonesian artists come from here.

There is one more interesting thing in Bandung, namely the Pasupati laying bridge. Not only is its function important but also this bridge provides attractive colors when viewed from afar with color display led lights that are dynamically made in a modern way.

Pasupati Flyover in Bandung
Pasupati Flyover in Bandung early in the morning

The Pasupati Flyover has become one of the icons and landmarks of Bandung City among the many icons in this old city. The source of budget funds for the construction of this service bridge capital expenditure comes from a grant from the Kuwaiti government.

The appearance of the Pasupati flyover will feel different just before sunset when the display lights have started to turn on. Maybe there are many people who have not paid attention because of their busy daily activities. But please note that from afar this bridge will change colors in a matter of minutes.

Pasupati Flyover in Bandung
Pasupati Flyover in Bandung early in the morning

Pasupati Bridge which has an important and strategic function connects the northern part of Bandung and the eastern part of Bandung City because there is a valley-like basin called Cikapundang. The length of the Pasupati flyover bridge is 2.8 meters, while the width is 30-60 m. The exact location of this bridge is in Tamansari, Kec. Bandung Wetan.

This long Pasupati bridge also crosses the main road, namely Pasir Kaliki road to HOS Cokroaminoto street, Tamansari street, Juanda street, Cipaganti road and Cihamplas road. This bridge connects Pasteur road to Surapati road. Part of the Pasupati flyover bridge is over Pasteur road and the other is above Surapati road. The two roads Pasteur and Surapati were shortened to Pasopati which became the name of this Flyover.

Pasupati Flyover in Bandung
Pasupati Flyover in Bandung early in the morning

The Pasopati flyover was built to reduce congestion in Bandung, which is getting worse every day. Finally, this bridge began to be used with first trials on June 26, 2005.

The bridge construction is built in two directions and in the middle of these two lines is a construction support with towering poles and is connected to a flexible component in the form of a cable stayed for flexible and motion tolerant load bearing. This bridge is divided into segments totaling 663 units supported by 46 poles.

This bridge has sophisticated construction technology because it is the first road in Indonesia to use earthquake resistant technology. The device in the construction of this service bridge is called a lock up device (LUD) which is only made in France.

In addition, it is also equipped with a cable stayed along the 161 meters, which means that this bridge does not use feet to cross the Cikapundung valley but with strong poles to support the cable stayed on the bridge that passes through the Cikapundung valley. At the top of this bridge there are 9 cable stayed supports for the east and 10 for the west side.
Karsten was also an advisor and planner of many public development projects by the Dutch East Indies Government such as in government buildings in Batavia, Meester Cornelis which is now the Jatinegara building in Bandung, Pasar Johar in Semarang, government buildings in Buitenzorg or Bogor today. Karsten's works also exist in Central Java, namely the Solo Balapan Station and Pasar Gede Harjonagoro in Surakarta.
TheIndonesiaAdventure.com Team Writter

Tag. :  West Java, Pasupati Flyover, Pasupati, Bandung City, Bandung, Bandung Tourism, Bandung Landmark, Bandung Icon, flyover, Bandung hotel, Citytour Bandung

Tuesday, September 8, 2020

Mendut Temple, First Legacy of the Sailendra Dynasty

Java Island is the center of the discovery of the temples of various kingdoms in the past. One of the temples is Mendut Temple. Mendut Temple is one of the Buddhist temples in Java. This temple is located on Jalan Mayor Kusen, Mungkid City, Magelang Regency, Central Java. It is located 3 km from Borobudur Temple and about 38 km to the northwest of Yogyakarta.

Mendut Temple in Magelang Regency, Central Java
Mendut Temple in Magelang Regency, Central Java

The internal structure of this Buddhist temple is made of bricks, but the outer walls are made of andesite stone. This building has a basement, above which there are alleys that surround the temple. Around Mendut Temple, there are 48 small stupas.

According to historians, Mendut Temple has a close connection with Pawon Temple, because Mendut Temple, Pawon Temple and Borobudur Temple are located in a straight line from north-south. Even now it is still a mystery why the three temples are connected in a straight line? It is very possible that this has a purpose, for example associated with astrology or others. Another question is how to determine the location of the temples in the past? What technology was used at that time?

The positions of Candii Borobudur, Candi Pawon and Candi Mendut are in this line following the constellation Orion Alnitak, Alnilam, Mintaka (Orion Belt). Maybe after this of course we will ask. How did in the past understand the relationship between the three temples and the constellation Orion? Why do the three temples stand in the same slanted line as the constellation Orion? Everything is still a mystery. Similar to the mystery of the various reliefs in the Borobudur Temple. Likewise, the mystery of how the Prambanan temples were made in the past with a high level of complexity. What kind of technology existed in the past?

Mendut Temple in Magelang Regency, Central Java.
Mendut Temple in Magelang Regency, Central Java.

The temples were built by the kings of the Syailendra Dynasty who were known as the family of temple builders in the archipelago. Other temples that are also close to Borobudur Temple are Canggal Temple / Mount Wukir and Losari Temple around Salam, Asu Temple, Lumbung Temple, Selagriya Temple, Ngawen Temple and Sari Temple around Muntilan.

Candi Mendut
Stairs to the top floor of Mendut Temple

There is still one more temple, namely Banon Temple which has Hindu characteristics. In this temple, there are found statues of the main Hindu gods in good condition, namely Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, and Ganesha. Unfortunately, the existence of Banon Temple is difficult to reconstruct because there are very few stones found in Banon Temple. The statues of Banon Temple during the Dutch East Indies era were moved to Batavia and stored at the National Museum of Indonesia.

Relief Candi Mendut
Relief of Mendut Temple

Until now, it is not clear when Mendut Temple was built. A historian J.G. de Casparis estimates that Mendut Temple was built by the first king of the Syailendra dynasty in 824 AD So Mendut Temple is thought to be the first temple built by Wangsa Syailendra. J.G. de Casparis also estimates that Mendut Temple is older than the age of Barabudhur Temple. This historian's estimate is based on the Karangtengah inscription (824 AD) which states in the inscription that King Indra had made a sacred building called Wenuwana.

Candi Mendut.
Mendut Temple. Guard statue on the stairs to enter Mendut Temple.

The ruins of Mendut Temple were first discovered in 1836. The discovery at that time was the base and building of the temple but the top and roof were not visible. Then in 1897-1904, the Dutch East Indies Government carried out renovations in several parts including the roof of the temple so that it displayed a shape that was almost the same as it is today, although not yet perfect.

Reliefs on the walls of Mendut Temple
Reliefs on the walls of Mendut Temple

The Dutch East Indies government returned to reconstruction and restoration in 1908 led by Van Erp with the results of refining the roof shape and replacing the stupas. This restoration was not completed but was temporarily suspended due to lack of funds, resuming in 1925.

Physically, Mendut Temple building which stands on a rectangular foundation has a height of 26.40 m. The position of the Mendut temple land is quite high, also about 2 meters from the surrounding height. There are many reliefs on the walls of the base of the temple with 31 panels in the form of dioramas of various stories. Relief forms in the form of carvings of people, animals, flowers and tendrils.
Candi Mendut
Guard Statue on the stairs of Mendut Temple

To reach the top of the temple through the date which is on the west side which has the entrance to the room in the temple. The roof of the viewer is the same height and blends with the roof of the temple body. Mendut Temple does not have a gate. The walls of the stairs are fanel reliefs depicting various Buddhist stories. At the beginning of the date there is a pair of dragon heads whose mouths are wide open. On the underside of the dragon's head was a panel with the image of a dwarf.


Some Stories in the Reliefs of Mendut Temple

In one part of the Mendut temple fanel, there is a relief depicting the story of Dharmabuddhi and Dustabuddhi. This story is about two friends, children of merchants. One day Dharmabuddhi found money and told his friend Dustabuddhi. They keep the money under a tree.

The story of Dharmabuddhi and Dustabuddhi in Mendut Temple
The story of Dharmabuddhi and Dustabuddhi in Mendut Temple

When they need money, Dharmabuddhi takes some of the money and divides it in half. The always suspicious and dissatisfied Dustabuddhi took all the remaining money. He reversed the facts by accusing Dharmabuddhi of taking all the money and bringing it to court. Fortunately the judge was able to prove that Dustabuddhi was found guilty and convicted.

Another story from the relief at Mendut Temple is that two parrots are different in their behavior because one is educated by a thief. While one by a priest.

TheIndonesiaAdventure.com team Writter

Tag. :  Syailendra dynasty, Buddhist temple, Mendut temple, Magelang, temple in Magelang, Mendut, Mendut Borobudur, Mendut borobudur, tourism sites, sites, Central Java Tourism, Syailendra, Mendut Temple

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