Why is It Called Jakarta?

Jakarta, the capital city of the Republic of Indonesia, which is almost half a century old, is the center of government as well as the busiest economy. Everyone probably knows Jakarta as the capital city, but when asked why is the name Jakarta the capital city of Indonesia? Maybe not everyone knows its origin.

Buildings in Kota Tua, Jakarta

Actually, what is the history of the name Jakarta? so we are now very familiar with the name. The first appearance of the name Jakarta after previously there were several names pinned on this very busy city. This area has changed its name several times and the name change is closely related to Jakarta's long history.

At first the area which has a dense population began to become a bustling trading area since the 4th century AD. At that time it was an independent fishing settlement and port called Kalapa. The name Kalapa is estimated at that time the coastal area had many palm or coconut trees. The Sundanese call the coconut tree the term 'kalapa'.

In addition to being a place for fishermen, this Kalapa area has also started trading activities. Gradually this area has started many traders from various regions come here by boat. Seeing the strategic development of Kalapa Beach and being a potential source of income, finally this area was taken over by the Tarumanegara Kingdom, which was based near the Chandrabhaga River (around Bekasi today) to be developed into a better and organized port.

Finally, Kelapa Harbor has become famous, many traders and sailors from the Straits of Malacca, Pasai, Middle East, Tumasik, India, Cape of Good Hope and Madagascar (Africa), Japan and also from China visited.

Under the administration of Tarumanegara this port succeeded in attracting the attention of many world traders and seafarers so that it became an important international trading port in northern Java, especially during the reign of King Purnawarman. The kingdom's biggest trade commodity through this port was the Tarum plant which grew a lot in the Citarum River for dyes and preservatives for clothing threads.

During the time of King Tarumanegara, who was named Sudawarman, the oldest Hindu kingdom in Java was weakened apart from pressure from the Sriwijaya Kingdom, which had greater power. According to Ir. J.L. Moens from the Kota Kapur Inscription ± 686 AD on Bangka Island, the collapse of the Tarumanegara Kingdom at the end of the century was caused by an attack from Srivijaya.

Another factor is that the Tarumanegara Kingdom lost the leadership of the original Tarumanegara lineage. The 12th king, Linggawarman, had no sons, so his eldest daughter, Manasih, married King Tarusbawa of the Sundapura Kingdom, which at that time the Sundapura Kingdom was part of the Tarumanegara mandala kingdom.

After the throne of Tarumanegara was held by Sri Maharaja Tarus Bawah, the center of the kingdom was moved around the banks of the Cisadane River, on the downstream bank of the Gomanti River. Not only that, King Tarusbawa also refused to continue the Tarumanegara Kingdom and preferred to remain as King of Sunda. He was more eager to continue his ancestral kingdom Sundapura.

His government moved to the lower reaches of the Gomanti River. During the reign of King Tarus Bawah, the Port of Kalapa became part of the Sunda Kingdom (Sundapura) so that its name at that time was more often referred to as the Port of Sunda Kalapa.

The rest of the Tarumanegara kingdom who did not agree with the decision of King Tarus Bawah followed the Kendan Kingdom which was a kingdom under the Tarumanegara Kingdom. In the future the Kendan Kingdom turned into the Galuh Kingdom in some of the former Tarumanegara kingdoms. The Galuh Kingdom was led by Wretikandayun (who came to power from 612).

Finally in 1482 the two kingdoms of Sundapura and Galuh, which at the time of Tarumanegara were the mandala kingdoms that were still bound by brotherhood, united themselves into the Kingdom of Pajajaran which was centered in Pakuan (Bogor) by appointing a new king named Jayadewata who had the title Sri Baduga Maharaja who was none other than Prabu. Siliwangi.

During the Pajajaran Kingdom in the Sri Baduga Maharaja era, the kingdom developed very rapidly, such as the construction of roads from Pakuan (now Bogor City) to Wanagiri and also the construction of the Talaga Maharena Wajaya reservoir.

Infrastructure development is also carried out for ports, not only Sunda Kalapa Port which functions as an international port, but also the development of new ports in Cimanuk (now Pemanukan), Pontang, Cigede, Banten and Tamgara.

A Portuguese explorer Tome Pires had visited the Port of Sunda Kalapa in 1512 and also 1515. He made many records of the condition of this port during the Pajajaran Kingdom. He described the Sunda Kelapa port as very crowded with sailors and traders from other regions such as from Malacca, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Java and Madura. Tome Pires also explained the trade commodities in Sunda Kelapa, such as pepper and nutmeg spices, rice, tamarind, slaughtered animals, gold, vegetables and fruits.

Another report by this sailor is that Sunda Kelapa stretches for a kilometer or two over narrow strips of cleared land on both banks of the Ciliwung river. This place is near the estuary which is located in a bay protected by several islands. The river allows for 10 merchant ships to enter, each with a capacity of about 100 tons. The ships are generally owned by the Malays, Japanese, Portuguese and Chinese.

Other ports in the archipelago are growing rapidly, such as the Port of Pasai, the Port of Malacca, the Port of Bonang, the Port of Tumasik (now Singapore) and besides that in the east of Java such as Tuban, Gresik and Surabaya also have developing ports.

At that time the Brantas River centered in Canggu had also existed for a long time, namely a river-based port. The Canggu inscription 1280 Saka (1358 AD) explains that on the Brantas River there are 34 river ports.

During the fall of Majapahit, all of these ports were finally controlled by the Kingdom of Demak. The kingdom of Demak developed rapidly under Patih Unus by building a strong marine force with strong and reliable Jungian ships.

Outside the territory of the Sunda kingdom of Pajajaran stood the Cirebon Sultanate, which was centered in Cirebon. This kingdom built the Cirebon Port which is also growing rapidly. Just like Demak, the Cirebon kingdom also built a strong marine fleet. The agricultural economy is developing well and the sea-based economy is also developing.

The sultanates of Demak and Cirebon have strong ties to both heredity and economic and military cooperation. Both are part of the descendants of the Wali Songo.

In 1511 the Portuguese began to enter the Sunda Kelapa Harbor as reported by the Portuguese explorer, Tome Pires. The beginning of his arrival was only for the purpose of trading and searching for commodities of nutmeg, pepper, cloves and others who came from other parts of the archipelago.

The Kingdom of Pajajaran saw the Kingdom of Banten and the Sultanate of Cirebon in the west of Java and the Sultanate of Demak in the east as competitors in the port business which had become the mainstay of the economy of the Pajajaran Kingdom.

Differences in attitude between son and father. His father Sri Baduga preferred to be independent, while his son, Prabu Surawisesa, preferred to involve the Portuguese in securing the Sunda Kelapa Harbor.

This condition caused Prabu Surawisesa to want to cooperate with the Portuguese who at that time also controlled the Port of Malacca. Even Prabu Surawisesa considered this so important that it was the crown prince who went to visit Malacca and conveyed his intentions to the Portuguese in 1512.

Like a tit for tat, the Portuguese made this issue an important ingredient for lobbying the King of Pajajaran to increase trade cooperation. Finally the Portuguese sent an envoy from Malacca led by Enrique Leme.

In order to smoothen his mission, Enrique brings goods for "King Samian" (meaning Sanghyang, namely Sang Hyang Surawisesa, King of Pajajaran. It turns out that the King was interested and made this meeting into an important Pajajaran-Pirtugis agreement recorded in a Sundanese-Portuguese Treaty Inscription or called the Portuguese as Padrao Sunda Kelapa which was agreed on August 21, 1522.

One of the points that in the future will be detrimental to Pajajaran is that the Portuguese were given large land near the port area which was originally to build Portuguese warehouses, but at a later stage the Portuguese would also build a fort on the land for reasons of warehouse security and Portuguese interests in the port. Coconut Sunda. For the construction of the fort, the Kingdom of Pajajaran helped finance 1000 baskets of pepper as stated in the Pedroa Sunda Kelapa agreement.

The Portuguese also showed an unfriendly attitude towards ships from the Sultanate of Banten, Demak and Cirebon. This arrogance in controlling the Sunda Kelapa port further fueled unfair competition and angered the Sultanates of Demak and Cirebon.

The Portuguese and Demak conflict had occurred since Patih Unus from Demak attacked the Portuguese in Malacca. The Portuguese had already mastered Malacca. Through Malacca, the Portuguese could control the spice trade. At that time the Port of Malacca was the busiest international trading port in Asia which became the center of the world's spice trade.

On the other hand, internal conflicts in Pajajaran also weakened Pajajaran's power. In terms of leadership in Pakuan, none of the successors to the Pajajaran throne can equate with Sri Baduga Maharaja, who was the first king. After the era of Sri Baduga Maharaja slowly and surely Pajajaran's power on all fronts was increasingly eroded, especially after the Portuguese also intervened in the problems at the Pajajaran palace.

This condition strengthened the desire of the Kingdom of Demak, Banten and Cirebon to ward off Portuguese colonization in Java. Moreover, the location of the Sunda Kelapa Harbor is in the middle of the heart of Java which is very close to the Port of Banten and the Port of Cirebon.

As a first step, the Demak Kingdom began to weaken Pajajaran by seizing the Banten Girang area (now Serang) without any war because most of the population in this area had started to embrace Islam and the magnitude of the Wali Songo role was here.

Likewise, the Port of Banten was taken over by the Demak Kingdom, which then to manage the north west region of Java, the Demak mandala kingdom was established, namely the Sultanate of Banten and appointed a son of Sunan Gunung Jati, namely Maulana Hasanuddin, as the first king in Banten since 1526.

On the Portuguese side, they have seen signs from the kingdoms around Pajajaran so that the Portuguese through Alfonso d'Albuquerque sent six warships under the leadership of Francisco de Sa to Sunda Kelapa. The Portuguese sent the main ships of the galleon type which weighed up to 800 tons. Together with the ships in it included 600 soldiers.

Before the Portuguese came to the port of Sunda Kalapa, let alone built a fort in the port area, in 1526 the troops from Demak, Banten and Cirebon, led by Fatahillah, had arrived first. The kingdoms of Demak and Cirebon sent 20 warships with 1,500 soldiers. The Kingdom of Pajajaran, which at that time was already very weak, did not provide resistance, so that the Kingdom of Demak could practically control the security side at Sunda Kelapa Harbor.

On June 22, 1527 the Portuguese Royal troops led by Francisco de Saa just arrived at Sunda Kalapa, but he was surprised because the Sunda Kelapa Harbor had been controlled by the Kingdom of Demak. When he arrived there, Sunda Kalapa had been completely controlled by the Islamic Kingdom. The Portuguese troops finally withdrew on the same day returning to Malacca with heavy losses.

The landslide victory made it a historic day and the port city of Sunda Kalapa was changed its name to Jaya Karta which means big victory. This victory was able to avenge Demak's defeat against the Portuguese when Pati Unus failed to get Malacca.

Unfortunately, on May 30, 1621, the Dutch VOC troops defeated the Sultanate of Banten and captured Jayakarta. Jayakarta completely overhauled the original buildings and the previous port was demolished and subsequently rebuilt a new city called Batavia by Jan Pieterszoon Coen.

Not long after that, based on the agreement of De Heeren Zeventien from the VOC on March 4, 1621, a city government named Stad Batavia was formed, which means the City of Batavia. Originally the name Batavia came from Bataf who is considered the ancestor of the Dutch nation. At that time there was also a large ship belonging to the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was built in 1628 which was called the Batavia.

The Dutch control of Jayakarta which lasted for 350 years is a reference that the Dutch colonized Indonesia for three and a half centuries, as claimed by the Governor General of the Dutch East Indies, Bonifacius Cornelis de Jonge in 1936. During World War II in 1943 Japan entered Indonesia, the name Batavia was changed to Jakarta until Indonesia became independent.

The Indonesia Adventure Team Writer

Reference source :

- indonesia.go.id/ragam/budaya/sosial/kronik-sejarah-kota-pelabuhan-sunda-kelapa
- id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakuan_Pajajaran#Raja-raja_yang_memerintah_di_Pakuan_Pajajaran
- id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kesultanan_Banten
- id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejarah_Jakarta
- jakarta.go.id/artikel/konten/4797/tarumanegara-kerajaan
- jakarta.go.id/artikel/konten/1124/distrik-di-batavia
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- Thomas B. Ataladjar dan Sudiyono, 1991, 'Sunda Kelapa' di Ensiklopedi Nasional Indonesia. Jakarta: Cipta Adi Pustaka.
- Heuken, A. (2002). The Earliest Portuguese Sources for the History of Jakarta - Including All Other Historical Documents from the 5th to the 16th Centuries. Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka, Jakarta.
- Zahorka, Herwig (2007). The Sunda Kingdoms of West Java, From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with Royal Center of Bogor, Over 1000 Years of Propsperity and Glory. Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka, Jakarta.